A connection between science and socio cultural factors
Relationship between science and culture
The influence exerted by thought styles and cultural-personal factors is a hotly debated topic, as discussed in Hot Debates about Science. This attitude contrasts with the positivist view that a descriptive theory should be the ending point for science. Metaphysics forms a foundation for some conceptual factors, such as criteria for the types of entities and interactions that should be used in theories. But even though many ideas are shared in a scientific community, some aspects of a thought style vary from one individual to another, and from one group to another. There are mutual influences between thought styles and three ways to learn. At other times, however, there is a conscious effort, by scientists or nonscientists, to use "the authority of science" for rhetorical purposes, to claim that scientific theories and evidence support a particular belief system or political program. With Lysenko's biology, the Soviets hoped that attaining consistency between science policy and the principles of communism would produce increased problem-solving utility. A common metaphysical assumption in science is empirical consistency, with reproducible results — there is an expectation that identical experimental systems should always produce the same observations. There will be mutual influences between thought styles and the procedural "rules of the game" developed by a community of scientists to establish and maintain certain types of institutions and reward systems, and procedures for deciding which people, topics, and viewpoints are presented in conferences and are published in journals. There may be a preference for projects with comprehensive "know every step in advance" preliminary planning, or casual "steer as you go" improvisational serendipity.
For a wide range of reasons, scientists considered these theories — which postulated noncircular celestial motions — to be successful, both empirically and conceptually, so the previous prohibition of noncircular motions was abandoned.
There are interactions between groups, and each individual belongs to many groups. A thought style will affect attitudes toward competition and cooperation and how to combine them effectively, and at a community level the ways in which activities of different scientists and groups are coordinated.
How does society influence science
Bauer compares science to solving a puzzle. They also hoped that this science would increase their own political power, so their support of Lysenko contained a strong element of self-interest. In much the same way that the environmental characteristics of an ecological niche affect the natural selection occurring within its bounds, the intellectual characteristics of individuals — and of the dominant thought styles in the communities they establish and within which they operate — will favor the development and maintenance of certain types of ideas about theories, experiments, goals, procedures, How does science affect culture, and how does culture affect science? Her discovery had far-reaching implications and would soon allow astronomers to measure the size of our galaxy and to show that the universe is expanding. But by the s it was becoming apparent that many of the most successful theories, in a variety of fields, depended on the postulation of unobservable entities. Similarly, in a field as a whole, each group can work on a different part of a mega-problem. These concepts about nature and science are related to the social and institutional structures within which they develop and operate.
During the Renaissance, European scientists and philosophers started challenging long-held beliefs and developed a new natural philosophy. Levins' political views don't change the outcomes of his scientific studies, but they do profoundly influence what topics he chooses to study in the first place.
And experiments in social science and medical science, which typically use a relatively small number of subjects, must be interpreted using a sophisticated analysis of sampling and statistics, by contrast with the statistical simplicity of chemistry experiments that involve a huge number of molecules.
The puzzle and filter metaphors provide useful ways to visualize posing and persuading, respectively. Everyone has a worldview, which does not cease to exist if it is ignored or denied.
Role of science in culture
And the process of filtering is useful for describing the overall process of scientific persuasion, including its institutional procedures. Such a method allowed for the legitimacy of hypotheses referring to theoretical entities, just so long as a broad range of correct observational claims could be derived from such hypotheses. But the foundations of modern science were laid long before this time, and were particularly influenced by Islamic civilization. The ISM framework includes two types of theories and corresponding models — descriptive and explanatory — so it is compatible with any type of scientific theory, whether it is descriptive, explanatory, or has some characteristics of each. How does science affect culture, and how does culture affect science? A model that is useful for analyzing change in science is proposed by Laudan , whose "reticulated model of scientific rationality" is based on the mutual interactions between the goals, theories, and methods of scientists. Another mechanism for influence is the generation and selection of criteria for theory evaluation. Usually scientists and others want theories to be not just plausible, but also useful. These activities were cosmopolitan, in that the participants were Arabs, Persians, Central Asians, Christians and Jews, and later included Indians and Turks. In fact, at the time, women were preferred for such tasks because of their supposedly patient temperaments. For example, the Soviet government supported the science of Lysenko because his theories and research supported the principles of Marxism. Briefly summarized, my opinion is that an extreme emphasis on cultural influence is neither accurate nor educationally beneficial, and that even though there is a significant cultural influence on the process of science, usually but not always the content of science is not strongly affected by cultural factors. Part of this hope was that Lysenko's theories, applied to agricultural policy, would increase the Russian food supply; but nature did not cooperate with the false theories, so this policy resulted in decreased productivity. As described by Grinnell , a cell biologist with an insider's view of science, a scientist's thought style or the collective thought style for a group of scientists is a system of concepts, developed from prior experience, about nature and research science. Edward Pickering is standing in the corner to the left.
based on 69 review