Motivational theories of douglas mcgregor and fredrick herzberg

These two sets of assumptions are fundamentally different Table 7. We'll now take a more in-depth look at the two different theories, and discover how and when they can be useful in the workplace. His greatest contribution has been the knowledge that motivation comes from within the individual; it cannot be imposed by an organisation according to some formula.

douglas mcgregor theory

Have no incentive to work or ambition, and therefore need to be enticed by rewards to achieve goals. Avoid responsibility and need constant direction.

Motivational theories of douglas mcgregor and fredrick herzberg

However, because there is no optimal way for a manager to choose between adopting either Theory X or Theory Y, it is likely that a manager will need to adopt both approaches depending on the evolving circumstances and levels of internal and external locus of control throughout the workplace. Some people are motivated by tight control and authoritative leadership, while others work best with loose controls. Business Horizons, 42 3 May-Jun , pp. This approach is very "hands-on" and usually involves micromanaging people's work to ensure that it gets done properly. People have greater responsibility, and managers encourage them to develop their skills and suggest improvements. Its assumptions about the value of individual initiative make it more a Theory-Y than a Theory X philosophy. Theory Y Theory Y managers have an optimistic, positive opinion of their people, and they use a decentralized, participative management style.

More involved in decision making. McGregor's perspective places the responsibility for performance on managers as well as subordinates.

theory x y z

Managers who choose the Theory X approach have an authoritarian style of management. Harvard Business Review.

Theory z

Thus, we can conclude that under some conditions Theory X works best and under other conditions Theory Y works best. His greatest contribution has been the knowledge that motivation comes from within the individual; it cannot be imposed by an organisation according to some formula. Nigel Nicholson argues in the Harvard Business Review that meritocracy is too rigid to truly motivate most people. Theory X Theory X managers tend to take a pessimistic view of their people, and assume that they are naturally unmotivated and dislike work. It can be contrasted with the system of meritocracy in which workers progress up a chain to leadership positions. An organization with this style of management encourages participation and values individuals' thoughts and goals. Older, strictly hierarchical conceptions of C2, with narrow centralization of decision rights, highly constrained patterns of interaction, and limited information distribution tend to arise from cultural and organizational assumptions compatible with Theory X. Herzberg argued that what motivates workers and what demotivates them are two separate elements that act independently of one another. London, Kogan Page, Forsyth, P.

McGregor called this Theory Y. The theory ignores situational variables. Leadership styles should therefore be adapted to the particular workers involved.

mcgregor theory of motivation

This approach is very "hands-on" and usually involves micromanaging people's work to ensure that it gets done properly. According to McGregor, organizations with a Theory X approach tend to have several tiers of managers and supervisors to oversee and direct workers.

Herzberg theory of motivation in the workplace

Essentially, Theory X assumes that people work only for money and security. As a result, they think that team members need to be prompted, rewarded or punished constantly to make sure that they complete their tasks. Although Theory Y encompasses creativity and discussion, it does have limitations. So, it's important to understand how your perceptions of what motivates them can shape your management style. Theory X is pessimistic, static, and rigid. Although Herzberg's theory is not highly regarded by psychologists today, managers have found in it useful guidelines for action. This style of management assumes that workers: Dislike their work.
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Frederick Herzberg's Two Factor Motivation Theory