The thirty years war the decline of social political and economical status of hapsburg and the rise

Using military assistance of Bohemian nobleman Albrecht von Wallenstein, who provided his army of an estimated 50, soldiers to Ferdinand II in exchange for the freedom to plunder any captured territory, began to respond and, bythe Swedes were vanquished.

thirty years war causes

Mansfeld died some months later of illness, in Dalmatia, exhausted and ashamed that this one battle had cost him half his army. Some of the Protestant leaders of Bohemia feared they would be losing the religious rights granted to them by Emperor Rudolf II in his letter of majesty.

who won the thirty years war

Under severe internal and external strain, it merely required a final spark, which it found in Bohemia. This phase of the war was marked by unprecedented brutality; for example, inimperial troops massacred two-thirds of the population of Magdeburga city of 20, that had withstood a long siege.

The Bohemians, desperate for allies against the Emperor, applied to be admitted into the Protestant Union, which was led by their original candidate for the Bohemian throne, the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector Palatine.

Peace of westphalia

For German society overall, the war was a traumatic experience; it is rivaled in the national consciousness only by World War II as a time of unmitigated disaster. Oxford: Clarendon Press, By this time, only the Austrian territories remained under the control of the Habsburgs. The mortality rate was perhaps closer to 15 to 20 percent, with deaths due to armed conflict, famine and disease. In , Cardinal Richelieu died. The war or series of connected wars began in , when the Austrian Habsburgs tried to impose Roman Catholicism on their Protestant subjects in Bohemia. Casualties and disease Moncourt chapelle , last vestige of a village. At the same time, it brought to an end the last major conflict in continental Europe in which religion was a central issue; indeed, the war itself had demonstrated that reason of state was a stronger determinant of policy than faith. War and intermittent outbreaks of plague cost some German towns one-third or more of their populations. A way out of the long conflict appeared in when Saxony, Brandenburg , and other Protestant states seeking to end foreign intervention joined the emperor in the Peace of Prague , which included the revocation of the Edict of Restitution.

With Spain weakening, France became the dominant power in Europe, an outcome confirmed by its victory in the subsequent Franco-Spanish War. By much of this objective was realized.

The period leading up to the war was characterised simultaneously by an extreme piety and increasing confessional divide in the empire, yet in its numerous theological, political and legal forms, the confessional conflict alone cannot be considered the sole cause of the conflagration.

When the contending powers finally met in the German province of Westphalia to end the bloodshed, the balance of power in Europe had been radically changed.

effects of the thirty years war
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The Treaty of Westphalia